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Type of dietary fiber Is associated with changes in ileal and hindgut microbial communities in growing pigs and influences in vitro ileal and hindgut fermentation

journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-03, 22:18 authored by Anna Hoogeveen, Paul Moughan, Sharon Henare, Philipp Schulze, Warren McNabb, Carlos MontoyaCarlos Montoya
Background: The degree of ileal organic matter (OM) fermentation appears to be comparable to hindgut fermentation in growing pigs. Objectives: This study aimed to determine if dietary fiber sources with known different total gastrointestinal tract (GIT) fermentability in humans affect ileal and hindgut microbial communities and ileal fermentation in growing pigs used as an animal model for human adults. Methods: Male pigs (21 kg bodyweight; 9 wk old; PIC Camborough 46 × PIC boar 356L; n = 8/diet) were fed for 42 d a diet containing cellulose (CEL, low fermentability) as the sole fiber source (4.5%) or diets in which half of the CEL was replaced by moderately fermentable fiber, psyllium (PSY), or kiwifruit (KF) fiber. For each diet, terminal jejunal (substrate) and ileal (inoculum) digesta were collected from euthanized animals for in vitro ileal fermentation (2 h). Terminal ileal (substrate) and cecal (inoculum) digesta were used for in vitro hindgut fermentation (24 h). After in vitro fermentations, OM fermentation and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production were determined. Ileal digesta and feces were collected for microbial analysis. Data were analyzed by 2-factor ANOVA (diet × GIT region). Results: In vitro ileal OM fermentation was on average 22% and comparable to hindgut OM fermentation. Ileal and hindgut OM fermentation, SCFA production, and microbial community composition changed (P < 0.05) when CEL was partially replaced by KF or PSY. For instance, pigs fed the PSY diet had 3-fold higher (P ≤ 0.05) number of ileal and fecal bacteria than pigs fed the CEL and KF diets. Pigs fed the CEL diet had 4-fold higher (P ≤ 0.05) hindgut valeric acid production than pigs fed the other diets. Conclusions: Ileal fermentation is quantitatively significant. Partial substitution of CEL with more fermentable fibers influences both ileal and hindgut microbial communities and the fermentation in growing pigs.


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© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Society for Nutrition. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


  • English

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Oxford University Press

Journal title

Journal of Nutrition




Hoogeveen, A. M. E., Moughan, P. J., Henare, S. J., Schulze, P., McNabb, W. C., & Montoya, C. A. (2021). Type of dietary fiber Is associated with changes in ileal and hindgut microbial communities in growing pigs and influences in vitro ileal and hindgut fermentation. Journal of Nutrition, 151(10), 2976–2985.

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