Technological environmental and biological factors_J of Anim Sci and Bio_S Miller.pdf (1.9 MB)

Technological, environmental and biological factors: referent variance values for infrared imaging of the bovine

Download (1.9 MB)
journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-03, 13:29 authored by Yuri R. Montanholi, Melissa Lim, Alaina Macdonald, Brock A. Smith, Christy Goldhawk, Karen Schwartzkopf-Genswein, Stephen Miller
Background Despite its variety of potential applications, the wide implementation of infrared technology in cattle production faces technical, environmental and biological challenges similar to other indicators of metabolic state. Nine trials, divided into three classes (technological, environmental and biological factors) were conducted to illustrate the influence of these factors on body surface temperature assessed through infrared imaging. Results Evaluation of technological factors indicated the following: measurements of body temperatures were strongly repeatable when taken within 10 s; appropriateness of differing infrared camera technologies was influenced by distance to the target; and results were consistent when analysis of thermographs was compared between judges. Evaluation of environmental factors illustrated that wind and debris caused decreases in body surface temperatures without affecting metabolic rate; additionally, body surface temperature increased due to sunlight but returned to baseline values within minutes of shade exposure. Examination/investigation/exploration of animal factors demonstrated that exercise caused an increase in body surface temperature and metabolic rate. Administration of sedative and anti-sedative caused changes on body surface temperature and metabolic rate, and during late pregnancy a foetal thermal imprint was visible through abdominal infrared imaging. Conclusion The above factors should be considered in order to standardize operational procedures for taking thermographs, thereby optimizing the use of such technology in cattle operations.


Rights statement

© 2015 Montanholi et al. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http:// applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.


  • English

Does this contain Māori information or data?

  • No


BioMed Central

Journal title

Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology




Montanholi, Y. R., Lim, M., Macdonald, A., Smith, B. A., Goldhawk, C., Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K., & Miller, S. P. (2015). Technological, environmental and biological factors: referent variance values for infrared imaging of the bovine. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology, 6(1), 27. doi: 10.1186/s40104-015-0027-y

Usage metrics


    Ref. manager