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Targeted Metabolite Fingerprints of Thirteen Gambierdiscus, Five Coolia and Two Fukuyoa Species

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posted on 2024-06-05, 02:15 authored by J. Sam Murray, Emillie Passfield, Lesley Rhodes, Jonathan Puddick, Sarah FinchSarah Finch, Kirsty F. Smith, Roel van Ginkel, Elizabeth M. Mudge, Tomohiro Nishimura, Hiroshi Funaki, Masao Adachi, Michele Prinsep, Tim Harwood

The genus Gambierdiscus produces an array of bioactive hydrophilic and lipophilic secondary metabolites that range in mode of action and toxicity. In this study, the metabolite fingerprint was mapped for thirteen Gambierdiscus, five Coolia and two Fukuyoa species (34 isolates) by assessing the production of 56 characterised secondary metabolites. Gambierdiscus polynesiensis was the only species to produce Pacific-ciguatoxin-3B (P-CTX3B), P-CTX3C, iso-P-CTX3B/C, P-CTX4A, P-CTX4B and iso-P-CTX4A/B. G. australes produced maitotoxin-1 (MTX-1) and MTX-5, G. cheloniae produced MTX-6 and G. honu produced MTX-7. Ubiquitous production of 44-methylgambierone was observed amongst all the Gambierdiscus isolates, with nine species also producing gambierone. Additional gambierone analogues, including anhydrogambierone (tentatively described herein), were also detected in all Gambierdiscus species, two Coolia and two Fukuyoa species. Gambieroxide was detected in G. lewisii and G. pacificus and gambieric acid A was detected in ten Gambierdiscus species, with G. australes (CAWD381) being the only isolate to produce gambieric acids A–D. This study has demonstrated that the isolates tested to date produce the known CTXs or MTXs, but not both, and highlighted several species that produced ‘unknown’ compounds displaying characteristics of cyclic polyethers, which will be the focus of future compound discovery efforts.

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© 2024 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Publication date

2024-03-02

Project number

  • 14438x01

Language

  • English

Does this contain Māori information or data?

  • No

Publisher

MDPI

Journal title

Marine Drugs

ISSN

1660-3397

Volume/issue number

22(3)

Page numbers

119

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