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Revaccination of cattle with Bacille Calmette-Guerin two years after first vaccination when immunity has waned, boosted protection against challenge with Mycobacterium bovis

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posted on 2023-05-03, 12:04 authored by Natalie ParlaneNatalie Parlane, Dairu ShuDairu Shu, Art Subharat, Neil WedlockNeil Wedlock, Bernd Rehm, Geoff DeLisle, Bryce BuddleBryce Buddle
In both humans and animals, controversy exists concerning the duration of protection induced by BCG vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) and whether revaccination enhances protection. A long-term study was undertaken to determine whether BCG-vaccinated calves would be protected against challenge with Mycobacterium bovis 2½ years after vaccination and to determine the effect of revaccination after 2 years. Seventy–nine calves were divided into five groups (n = 15–17 calves/group) with four of the groups vaccinated subcutaneously with 105 CFU of BCG Danish at 2–4 weeks of age and the fifth group serving as non-vaccinated controls. Three of the four BCG-vaccinated groups were revaccinated 2 years after the initial vaccination. One BCG-vaccinated group was revaccinated with BCG. A second group was vaccinated subcutaneously with a TB protein vaccine consisting of biopolyester particles (Biobeads) displaying two mycobacterial proteins, ESAT-6 and Antigen 85A, mixed with an adjuvant. A third group was vaccinated with TB proteins from M. bovis culture filtrate, mixed with an adjuvant. Twenty-three weeks after the BCG revaccination, all animals were challenged endotracheally with virulent M. bovis and a further 13 weeks later, animals were killed and necropsied to determine protection against TB. The BCG-vaccinated animals produced positive tuberculin caudal fold intradermal (15 of 62 animals) and IFN-γ TB test responses (six of 62 animals) at 6 months after vaccination, but not at subsequent time-points compared to the non-vaccinated animals. Calves receiving a single vaccination with BCG vaccine 2½ years prior to challenge were not protected against TB, while those revaccinated with BCG 2 years after the initial vaccination displayed significant reductions in lung and pulmonary lymph node lesion scores compared to the non-vaccinated animals. In contrast, no reduction in lesion scores was observed in the animals revaccinated with the TB protein vaccines with their immune responses biased towards induction of antibody.


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© 2014 Parlane et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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Parlane, N.A., Shu, D., Subharat, S., Wedlock, D.N., Rehm, B.H.A., de Lisle, G.W., & Buddle, B.M. (2014) Revaccination of cattle with Bacille Calmette-Guérin two Years after first vaccination when immunity has waned, boosted protection against challenge with Mycobacterium bovis. PLoS ONE 9(9): e106519.


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