protein-modifications-due-to-homogenisation-and-heat-treatment-of-cow-milk.pdf (601.49 kB)

Protein modifications due to homogenisation and heat treatment of cow milk

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-03, 22:13 authored by Jessica Gathercole, Hanh Nguyen, Paul Harris, Mike WeeksMike Weeks, Mariza ReisMariza Reis
This research paper aimed to locate protein modifications caused by treatment of milk and determine if the modification locations were consistent. The majority of milk for consumption is homogenised using pressure and heat, and this causes changes in the location of proteins in the milk as well as protein modifications. To investigate these proteomic changes, raw milk was pasteurised (72°C, 15 s), then, to separate the treatment for homogenisation, heated at these different pressures and temperatures: 45°C without no pressure applied, 45°C with 35 MPa, 80°C without pressure applied and 80°C, with 35 MPa. Proteomic analysis was done after separating the milk into three fractions: whey, casein and cream. Protein modifications in each fraction were examined and we found Maillard products as well as oxidation to be of interest. The proteins were also further identified and characterised to compare protein modification sites and differences in proteins present in the cream resulting from homogenisation and/or pasteurisation. This experiment showed that both heat and pressure during homogenisation can cause increases in protein modifications as a result of oxidation or the Maillard reaction. Total cysteine oxidation and total proline oxidation differed between treatments although this was only significantly different for cysteine. It was observed that protein modifications occurred in the same location in the protein sequence rather than in random locations which we highlighted by examining α-S1-casein, lactadherin and β-lactoglobulin.


Rights statement

© The Author(s), 2023. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of Hannah Dairy Research Foundation. This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence ( licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


  • English

Does this contain Māori information or data?

  • No


Oxford University Press

Journal title

Journal of Dairy Research




Gathercole, J. L., Nguyen, H. T. H., Harris, P., Weeks, M., & Reis, M. G. (2023). Protein modifications due to homogenisation and heat treatment of cow milk. Journal of Dairy Research, 90(1), 58–65.

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