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Preterm human milk: associations between perinatal factors and hormone concentrations throughout lactation

journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-04, 10:53 authored by Laura Galante, Clare Reynolds, Amber MilanAmber Milan, Tanith Alexander, Frank H. Bloomfield, David Cameron-Smith, Shikha Pundir, Mark Vickers
Background: Infants born moderate to late preterm constitute the majority of preterm births, yet guidelines for their nutritional care are unclear. Maternal milk is the most appropriate nutrition for these infants; however, its composition can be influenced by environmental factors. The present study therefore investigated perinatal predictors of human milk composition in a preterm cohort. Methods: Milk was collected during the DIAMOND trial (DIfferent Approaches to Moderate and late preterm Nutrition: Determinants of feed tolerance, body composition and development) from 169 mothers of 191 infants at three time-points (5 and 10 days post partum and 4 months’ corrected age). Leptin, adiponectin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Generalised mixed models were used to evaluate associations between milk composition and maternal/infant/perinatal factors. Results: Most findings were independent of collection time-point. Gestational diabetes was associated with lower adiponectin. Higher adiponectin and lower leptin were associated with higher socioeconomic status, higher maternal education and ability to fully breastfeed at discharge from hospital. Higher leptin was associated with high perceived stress during hospital admission. Milk IGF-1 displayed sex-specific patterns in association with maternal social deprivation. Conclusion: Maternal, infant and environmental factors during the perinatal period were associated with milk compositional profiles throughout lactation. Further clinical trials should investigate the impact of such changes in terms of long-term infant outcomes.


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© 2020 Springer Nature Limited


  • English

Does this contain Māori information or data?

  • No


Springer Nature

Journal title

Pediatric Research




Galante, L., Reynolds, C. M., Milan, A. M., Alexander, T., Bloomfield, F. H., Cameron-Smith, D., … Vickers, M. (2021). Preterm human milk: associations between perinatal factors and hormone concentrations throughout lactation. Pediatric Research, 89, 1461–1469. doi:10.1038/s41390-020-1069-1

Report number

FBP 90212

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