Nutrients 10(10)_1492 - AMilan et al 121018.pdf (1.07 MB)

Digestive responses to fortified cow or goat dairy drinks: a randomised controlled trial

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posted on 2023-05-03, 16:32 authored by Amber MilanAmber Milan, Alison Hodgkinson, Sarah Mitchell, Utpal Prodhan, Colin Prosser, Elizabeth Carpenter, Karl FraserKarl Fraser, David Cameron-Smith
Fortified milk drinks are predominantly manufactured from bovine (cow) sources. Alternative formulations include those prepared with hydrolysed bovine milk proteins or from alternate bovidae species, such as caprine (goat) milk. Currently, there is little data on protein digestive and metabolic responses following ingestion of fortified milk drinks. To examine the digestive and metabolic responses to commercially-available fortified milks, young adults (n = 15 males: 15 females), in a randomised sequence, ingested isonitrogenous quantities of whole cow-protein (WC), whole goat-protein (WG), or partially-hydrolysed whey cow-protein (HC), commercial fortified milks. Plasma amino acid (AA) and hormonal responses were measured at baseline and again at 5 h after ingestion. Paracetamol recovery, breath hydrogen, and subjective digestive responses were also measured. Postprandial plasma AA was similar between WC and WG, while AA appearance was suppressed with HC. Following HC, there was a negative incremental AUC in plasma branched-chain AAs. Further, HC had delayed gastric emptying, increased transit time, and led to exaggerated insulin and GLP-1 responses, in comparison to whole protein formulas. Overall, WC and WG had similar protein and digestive responses with no differences in digestive comfort. Contrastingly, HC led to delayed gastric emptying, attenuated AA appearance, and a heightened circulating insulin response.


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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).


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Milan, A. M., Hodgkinson, A. J., Mitchell, S. M., Prodhan, U. K., Prosser, C. G., Carpenter, E. A., … Cameron-Smith, D. (2018). Digestive responses to fortified cow or goat dairy drinks: a randomised controlled trial. Nutrients, 10(10), 1492. doi:10.3390/nu10101492

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