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Development of an ELISA for the Detection of Azaspiracids

journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-03, 13:45 authored by Ingunn Samdal, Kjersti Lovberg, Lyn Briggs, Kilcoyne Jane, Jianyan Xu, Craig Forsyth, Christopher Miles
Azaspiracids (AZAs) are a group of biotoxins that cause food poisoning in humans. These toxins are produced by small marine dinoflagellates such as Azadinium spinosum, and accumulate in shellfish. Ovine polyclonal antibodies were produced and used to develop an ELISA for quantitating AZAs in shellfish, algal cells, and culture supernatants. Immunizing and plate coating antigens were prepared from synthetic fragments of the constant region of AZAs. The ELISA provides a sensitive and rapid analytical method for screening large numbers of samples. It has a working range of 0.458.6 ng/mL and limit of quantitation for total AZAs in whole shellfish at 57 µg/kg, well below the maximum permitted level set by the European Commission. The ELISA has good cross-reactivity to AZA-1 to 10, 33, 34 and 37-epi-AZA-1. Naturally contaminated Irish mussels gave similar results whether they were cooked or uncooked, indicating that the ELISA also detects 22-carboxyAZA metabolites (e.g. AZA-17 and AZA-19). ELISA results showed excellent correlation with LC-MS/MS analysis, both for mussel extract spiked with AZA-1 and for naturally contaminated Irish mussels. The assay is therefore well suited to screening for AZAs in shellfish samples intended for human consumption, as well as for studies on AZA metabolism.


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Copyright © 2015 American Chemical Society


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American Chemical Society

Journal title

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry




Samdal, I. A., Lovberg, K. E., Briggs, L. R., Jane, K., Xu, J., Forsyth, C. J., & Miles, C. O. (2015). Development of an ELISA for the detection of azaspiracids. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 63(35), 7855–7861. doi:10.1021/acs.jafc.5b02513

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