Yari et al 2017 CHO and lipid spectroscopic structures.pdf (1.65 MB)

Carbohydrate and lipid spectroscopic molecular structures of different alfalfa hay and their relationship with nutrient availability in ruminants

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-03, 16:32 authored by Mojtaba Yari, Reza Valizadeh, Abbas Nnaserian, Arjan JonkerArjan Jonker, Peiqiang Yu
Objective: This study was conducted to determine molecular structures related to carbohydrates and lipid in alfalfa hay cut at early bud, late bud and early flower and in the afternoon and next morning using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT/IR) and to determine their relationship with alfalfa hay nutrient profile and availability in ruminants. Methods: Chemical composition analysis, carbohydrate fractionation, in situ ruminal degradability, and DVE/OEB model were used to measure nutrient profile and availability of alfalfa hay. Univariate analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis (CLA) and principal components analysis (PCA) were conducted to identify FT/IR spectra differences. Results: The FT/IR non-structural carbohydrate (NSCHO) to total carbohydrates and NSCHO to structural carbohydrate ratios decreased (p<0.05), while lignin to NSCHO and lipid CH3 symmetric to CH2 symmetric ratios increased with advancing maturity (p<0.05). The FT/IR spectra related to structural carbohydrates, lignin and lipids were distinguished for alfalfa hay at three maturities by PCA and CLA, while FT/IR molecular structures related to carbohydrates and lipids were similar between alfalfa hay cut in the morning and afternoon when analyzed by PCA and CLA analysis. Positive correlations were found for FT/IR NSCHO to total carbohydrate and NSCHO to structural carbohydrate ratios with non-fiber carbohydrate (by wet chemistry), ruminal fast and intermediately degradable carbohydrate fractions and total ruminal degradability of carbohydrates and predicted intestinal nutrient availability in dairy cows (r≥0.60; p<0.05) whereas FT/IR lignin to NSCHO and CH3 to CH2 symmetric stretching ratio had negative correlation with predicted ruminal and intestinal nutrient availability of alfalfa hay in dairy cows (r≥–0.60; p<0.05). Conclusion: FT/IR carbohydrate and lipid molecular structures in alfalfa hay changed with advancing maturity from early bud to early flower, but not during the day, and these molecular structures correlated with predicted nutrient supply of alfalfa hay in ruminants.


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Copyright © 2017 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


  • English

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  • No


Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies(AAAP)

Journal title

Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences




Yari, M., Valizadeh, R., Nnaserian, A. A., Jonker, A., & Yu, P. (2017). Carbohydrate and lipid spectroscopic molecular structures of different alfalfa hay and their relationship with nutrient availability in ruminants. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 30(11), 1575–1589. doi:10.5713/ajas.16.0756

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