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Application of circular economy principles to New Zealand pastoral farming systems

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posted on 2023-05-03, 18:43 authored by Vicki BurggraafVicki Burggraaf, Gina Lucci, Stewart LedgardStewart Ledgard, Diogenes Antille, Val SnowVal Snow, Cecile de KleinCecile de Klein
Global food production is under pressure to produce more from limited resources, with further expectations to reduce waste and pollution and improve social outcomes. Circular economy principles aim to design out waste and pollution, minimise the use of nonrenewable external inputs and increase the lifespan of products and materials. Waste sources on New Zealand farms and options to reduce waste and improve circularity were reviewed. Waste reduction should begin with systems design, while recycling should be at the bottom of the hierarchy. On-farm resource use efficiency has been widely studied, but there are also opportunities to repurpose waste and integrate systems. The use of organic waste products as fertiliser and supplementary feed occurs to some extent, as does use of excess dairy calves in the beef industry, but they present both opportunities and challenges. More farm waste recycling opportunities are becoming available, with new products available from waste processing, such as plastic fence posts. Circular strategies in New Zealand agriculture require more analysis to determine economic, social, cultural and environmental outcomes.


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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


  • English

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  • No


NZ Grassland Association Inc.

Journal title

Journal of New Zealand Grasslands




Burggraaf, V. T., Lucci, G. M., Ledgard, S. F., Antille, D. L., Snow, V. O., & de Klein, C. A. M. (2020). Application of circular economy principles to New Zealand pastoral farming systems. Journal of New Zealand Grasslands, 82, 53–59. doi:10.33584/jnzg.2020.82.426

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