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Ammonia and nitrous oxide emission factors for excreta deposited by livestock and land-applied manure

journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-03, 21:55 authored by Tony VanDerWeerden, Alasdair NobleAlasdair Noble, Cecile de KleinCecile de Klein
Manure application to land and deposition of urine and dung by grazing animals are major sources of ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Utilizing data on NH3 and N2O emissions following land-applied manures and excreta deposited during grazing, emission factors (EFs) disaggregated by climate zone were developed and effects of mitigation strategies evaluated. The NH3 data represents emissions from cattle and swine manures in temperate wet climates, while the N2O data includes cattle, sheep and swine manure emissions in temperate wet/dry and tropical wet/dry climates. The NH3 EFs for broadcast cattle solid manure and slurry were 0.03 and 0.24 kg NH3-N kg–1 total N (TN), respectively, while broadcast swine slurry was 0.29. Emissions from both cattle and swine slurry were reduced between 46 and 62% with low emissions application methods. Land application of cattle and swine manure in wet climates had EFs of 0.005 and 0.011 kg N2O-N kg–1 TN, respectively, while in dry climates the EF for cattle manure was 0.0031. The N2O EF for cattle urine and dung in wet climates was 0.0095 and 0.002 kg N2O-N kg–1 TN, respectively, which were three times greater than for dry climates. The N2O EFs for sheep urine and dung in wet climates were 0.0043 and 0.0005, respectively. The use of nitrification inhibitors reduced emissions in swine manure, cattle urine/dung and sheep urine by 45 to 63%. These enhanced EFs can improve national inventories; however, more data from poorly represented regions (e.g. Asia, Africa, South America) is needed.


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© 2021 American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved


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Journal title

Journal of Environmental Quality




van der Weerden, T. J., A. Noble, C. A. M. de Klein, N. Hutchings, R. E. Thorman, M. A. Alfaro, B. Amon, I. Beltran, P. Grace, M. Hassouna, D. J. Krol, A. B. Leytem, F. Salazar and G. L. Velthof (2021). Ammonia and nitrous oxide emission factors for excreta deposited by livestock and land-applied manure. Journal of Environmental Quality, 50(5), 1005-1023. doi:10.1002/jeq2.20259

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